The ecological footprint concept is taken into account when analysing the implications regarding land occupation in the various cases considered.

A system based on dirty energy generation does not internalise its ecological footprint. If it did, the occupation of the territory necessary to internalise the impact of CO2 emissions in Spain would be approximately 226% of the territory at present and 358% in 2050.


One hundred per cent renewable generation does internalise its ecological footprint. The energy system's land occupation (discounting "non energy" use) for the Efficiency Scenario in 2050 ranges from 10.4% of mainland Spain –if there is a balance between biomass from energy crops and hydrogen from renewable electricity– to 0% thanks to a mix of technologies with no impact on land occupation, like building-integrated photovoltaic, offshore wind and wave energy or with the support of types of biomass with no impact on land occupation, like residual biomass.